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‘梨橙’有性多倍体发掘及遗传鉴定
崔璐璐1, 党江波1, 韩国辉2, 郭启高1, 向素琼1, 梁国鲁1
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(1.南方山地园艺学教育部重点实验室/西南大学南方山地作物逆境生物学国家级培育基地/西南大学农业科学研究院/园艺园林学院;2.重庆市农业科学院果树研究所)
摘要:
多倍体植株具有少核、有效成分含量高、树形矮化、抗逆性强等特点,在大田作物和果树育种中均有应用。‘梨橙’是我国自主选育的优质甜橙品种,种子单胚,也有少量多胚种子出现。至今未见关于‘梨橙’多倍体及‘梨橙’单胚种子杂种性的报道。本研究以‘梨橙’为材料,开展多倍体发掘和遗传鉴定研究。流式细胞术筛选与染色体显微观察相结合,对其自然产生的单胚种子萌发植株进行筛选,获得了三倍体2株、四倍体1株;InDel标记分析证实这些多倍体均为有性胚产生,其纯合位点比例较高,可能产生于第二次减数分裂核复原(SDR, second meiotic division restitution)以及减数分裂后加倍(PMD, post-meiotic genome doubling);多胚/单胚分子标记(MITE-P2)分析表明,‘梨橙’基因组DNA扩增出了清晰的短片段和模糊的长条带,可能与其能产生多胚种子有关;而3株多倍体后代均只扩增出了清晰的短条带,该3株多倍体可能不能产生多胚种子。本研究表明:‘梨橙’后代中多倍体比例较高,通过‘梨橙’单胚种子可获得有性多倍体,自‘梨橙’后代获得单胚四倍体是可能的。本研究为以‘梨橙’为亲本培育多倍体以及单胚四倍体筛选提供了重要参考。
关键词:  ‘梨橙’  多倍体  InDel  单胚  多胚
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20201222004
投稿时间:2020-12-22修订日期:2021-01-29
基金项目:重庆博士后基金特别资助项目(XmT2018056);重庆市科委社会民生科技创新专项(cstc2016shmszx12080003);重庆市基础与前沿研究计划项目(cstc2016jcyjA0046);国家自然科学基金项目(31272138)
Exploitation and genetic characterization of sexual polyploids from ‘Licheng’ sweet orange
CUI Lu-lu1, DANG Jiang-bo1, HAN Guo-hui2, GUO Qi-gao1, XIANG Su-qiong1, LIANG Guo-lu1
(1.Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountains Regions of Ministry of Education/National Cultivation Base of Crop Adversity Biology for Southern Mountains Regions of Southwest University/Academy of Agricultural Sciences,College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture,Southwest University;2.Fruit Research Institute of Chongqing Agriculture Science Academy)
Abstract:
With characteristics of few seeds and high content of effective components in the fruit, dwarf habit, and strong stress resistance, polyploid plants plays an important role in crop and fruit tree breeding. Sweet orange ‘Licheng’ is a high-quality variety bred independently in China, which produces fruits with mostly monoembryonic seeds and a few polyembryonic seeds. So far, there are no reports about the polyploidy of this variety and the heterozygosity of its monoembryonic seeds. In this study, the screening, and genetic identification and analysis of polyploidy were carried out using sweet orange ‘Licheng’ as material. Two triploid and one tetraploid plants were selected by flow cytometry and chromosome microscopy from seedlings grown from naturally produced monoembryo seeds. Through the analysis of polyploidy by InDel markers, it was confirmed that these polyploids were grown from sexual embryos, and the proportion of homozygous loci was high, which may be caused by second meiotic division restitution (SDR) and post-meiotic genome doubling (PMD). Polyembryonic/monoembryonic molecular marker (MITE-P2) analysis showed that the clear short fragments and fuzzy long bands obtained from the genomic DNA amplification of ‘Licheng’ may be related to its ability to produce polyembryonic seeds, while the clear short bands only, obtained from the genomic DNA amplification of the three polyploid progenies, may be due to their inability to produce polyembryonic seeds. This study indicated that the proportion of polyploids in the progeny of ‘Licheng’ was high, with sexual polyploids obtainable from the monoembryonic seeds of ‘Licheng’, and monoembryo tetraploids obtainable from the progeny of ‘Licheng’, which provides an important reference for breeding of polyploids and monoemnryonic tetraploids with ‘Licheng’ as the parent.
Key words:  Citrus sinensis ‘Licheng’  polyploid  InDel  monoembryony  polyembryony

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