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高粱淀粉粳糯特性的快速鉴定技术方法与应用
李桂英1, 王 智1, 张 骥1, 顿宝庆1, 朱 莉2, 孟凡华1, 游光霞1, 韩粉霞1
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(1.中国农业科学院作物科学研究所/作物分子育种国家工程实验室;2.中国农业科学院生物技术研究所)
摘要:
高粱籽粒有粳(非糯)、糯之分,我国传统名酒如茅台、五粮液等,均以糯高粱为主要原料,快速鉴别高粱的粳糯对育种和原料采购均具有重要意义。现有高粱粳糯的鉴定方法主要有染色法和蒸煮法等,但均存在鉴定效率不高的问题,影响糯高粱育种进程。本文在前人基础上,经过反复试验,总结出如下4种适合不同情形的高粱粳糯快速鉴别方法,即:刀切法,籽粒捣碎开水糊化法、冷水捣碎染色法和田间花粉染色法。综合利用这4种方法,可使鉴定效率大大提高。论文还讨论了4种鉴定方法在育种中的应用前景,探讨了4种鉴定方法的适用性和鉴定效率。
关键词:  粳高粱  糯高粱  碘染色  快速鉴定
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2020122900
投稿时间:2020-12-29修订日期:2021-01-26
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2019YFD1001700, 2018YFD1000702);中国农科院创新工程;国际原子能协调研究项目(D23031)
A Package of Improved Methods for Rapid Identification of Waxy Phenotype in Sorghum
LI Gui-ying1, WANG Zhi1, ZHANG Ji1, DUN Bao-qing1, ZHU Li2, MENG Fan-hua1, YOU Guang-xia1, HAN Fen-xia1
(1.National Engineering Laboratory for Crop Molecular Breeding, Institute of Crop Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
The endosperm of the sorghum grain is either waxy or non-waxy. Traditional Chinese liquors such as ‘Moutai’ and ‘Wuliangye’ are brewed with waxy sorghum as main feedstock. It is of great significance to clarify the waxy phenotype with efficient approaches in breeding and marketing. There are several methods such as staining and cooking, available for clarifying the waxy sorghum and non-waxy sorghum. However, these methods due to the limitation of efficiency might restrict the breeding for elite waxy sorghum varieties. In this study, four improved or newly-developed methods including cutting, hot water gelatinization staining, cold water smashing-staining as well as field-applicable pollen staining are suggested. We believed that deployment of these four methods is able to improve the efficiency on identification. The application of the four methods in waxy sorghum breeding program and their applicability are further discussed.
Key words:  waxy sorghum  non-waxy sorghum  iodine staining  rapid identification

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