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作物种质资源库的设计与建设要求
卢新雄, 尹广鹍, 辛霞, 陈晓玲, 张金梅, 何娟娟
0
(中国农业科学院作物科学研究所)
摘要:
我国是作物种质资源大国,目前收集已经保存340种作物,保存资源总量达49万份,如何确保安全保存是种质资源管理的首要课题。自“九五”开始,系统地开展了作物种质资源安全保存理论与技术的研究,首次提出种质安全保存理论,揭示了种质活力丧失存在关键节点及其生物学机制;明确了发芽率低于关键节点更新,导致群体遗传完整性丧失;提出了种质安全保存寿命的概念,以及延长安全保存寿命的关键因素。研发了种质活力监测预警、繁殖更新与离体保存等关键技术,制定了种质资源入库圃保存,监测预警,繁殖更新,离体保存和设施建设等技术规程,创建了中国作物种质资源安全保存技术体系。该体系应用于全国作物种质资源的保存实践,最大程度延长种质安全保存寿命,并监测预警出需更新的种质,避免因活力和遗传完整性丧失而导致种质资源“得而复失”,为实现我国作物种质资源长久安全保存提供了有力保障。
关键词:  作物种质  保存  种质库  设计
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr20210120001
投稿时间:2021-01-20修订日期:2021-05-18
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFE0105100)
Design and Construction of Crop Germplasm Genebank
LU Xin-xiong, YIN Guang-kun, XIN Xia, CHEN Xiao-ling, ZHANG Jin-mei, HE Juan-juan
(Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
China has abundant crop germplasm resources. At present, 340 crops and a total of 490,000 accessions have been conserved at the national conservation system. How to ensure the safe conservation of germplasm resources is the responsibility and mission of genebank managers. Since the Ninth Five-Year Plan, the National Crop Genebank of China has systematically studied the theories and technologies of the safe conservation of germplasm. For the first time, we proposed a theory for germplasm resources conservation, including both safety backup and the biological mechanism of conservation. The transition from platform (high viability) to the rapid reduction phase of the seed survival curve was defined as the critical node (CN). It was revealed that oxidative damage and mitochondrial damage disorder the metabolism in the CN. In addition to, there was demonstrated that regeneration threshold values is the CN according to that the accession was regenerated when its germination rate was lower than the CN, resulting in the loss of genetic integrity. Taking loss of viability and genetic integrity together, safe longevity of germplasm is the period from the beginning of storage to the time point when seed viability declined to the CN. We have made breakthroughs on the key techniques for seed viability monitoring, early warning of viability decline, regeneration and in vitro preservation. Based on the above research, we have created a technological system for the safe conservation of crop germplasm resource, which has been applied in Chinese genebanks. For avoiding the loss of germplasm resources due to the loss of vigor and genetic integrity in genebank, the technological system would prolong the safe longevity of accession, monitor and forecast the accession viability, recognize the accession which needs to be regenerated. Therefore, the technological system provides a reliable guarantee for the safe conservation of crop germplasm resources in China.
Key words:  crop germplasm  conservation  Genebank  design

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