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甘肃临夏一种野生草莓资源的鉴定及其花芽分化特性
庞夫花1, 石光农2, 陈晓东1, 袁华招1, 王静1, 蔡伟建1, 王珑静1, 赵密珍1,
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(1.江苏省农业科学院果树研究所/江苏省高校园艺作物遗传改良重点实验室;2.临夏市农业技术服务中心)
摘要:
国家果树种质南京草莓资源圃中引自甘肃临夏的一类野生草莓资源种类尚未确定,通过对其原生境下的植株姿态、叶型、匍匐茎抽生习性、花性、果实以及染色体数目等特性进行观察以确定其分类归属,结果表明:植株矮小、三出复叶,偶有五叶,聚伞花序,3~5朵/序,两性花;果实红色,卵圆形、短圆柱形,种子凹,萼片平展或略反折;单轴分枝;二倍体(2n=2x=14),通过比对分类目录检索表,该野生资源属于中国草莓(F.chinensis)。中国草莓在原生境下,3月开始萌动,5月初现蕾,6月中旬果实成熟,7月中旬开始花芽分化,历时约60 d,平均温度为10~25℃,分化前30 d分化率达75%,期间抽生匍匐茎,9月下旬,叶片发黄,11月叶片干枯,植株进入休眠;通过原生境(甘肃临夏)与南京气候因子的比较分析,探讨了影响草莓花芽分化的气候因子,初步确定了中国草莓引入南京不开花的原因。
关键词:  野生草莓  分类鉴定  花芽分化
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210121002
投稿时间:2021-01-21修订日期:2021-04-23
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD1000203);国家园艺种质资源库项目(NHGRC2020-NH16);农业部作物种质资源保护项目(19200361)
Identification and Floral Bud Differentiation Analysis of One Wild Strawberry Accession from Linxia City, Gansu Province
PANG Fu-hua1, SHI Guang-nong2, CHEN Xiao-dong1, YUAN Hua-zhao1, WANG Jing1, CAI Wei-jian1, WANG Long-jing1, ZHAO Mi-zhen1
(1.Institute of Pomology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crops Genetic Improvement;2.Linxia Agricultural Technology Center, Gansu Linxia)
Abstract:
One wild strawberry accession, which was collected from Linxia city, Gansu Province is conserved in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Nanjing, China. In order to identify its taxonomy, the main taxonomical characters such as plant posture, leaflet type, stolon branching, flower sex, fruit shape and chromosome number have been investigated in the natural habitat (Linxia city, Gansu province). Plant (diploid, 2n=2x=14) is slender with trifoliate leaves (rarely quinquefoliolate); inflorescences are in cymes with 3 to 5 bisexual flowers per inflorescence; fruits are red, oval or short cylindrical; achenes are sunken; Calyxes are flat or slightly inversely curving; the runners are monopodial. This wild accession has been identified F.chinensis. In the natural habitat, plants generally germinate in March, bud appears in early May, and fruit ripens in mid-June. The floral bud differentiation has initiated since the middle of July (lasting for 60 days at 10 to 25°C), while 75% of floral bud have differentiated in the first 30 days. The leaves turned yellow in late September, withered in November before the dormancy. Based on the comparative analysis of climatic factors (Linxia and Nanjing), we discussed the environmental factors that associated to the flower bud differentiation of strawberry, as well as the reasons that resulted in a compromised flowering of F.chinensis in Nanjing.
Key words:  Wild strawberry  Classification  floral differentiation

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