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草果地理分布特征及表型变异分析
许倬卉, 杨绍兵, 杨天梅, 杨维泽, 王元忠, 张金渝
0
(云南省农业科学院药用植物研究所)
摘要:
为合理开发和利用草果资源,2019 年对云南、广西 16 个产地进行资源调查,基于物种分布信息,结合最大信息熵模型和地理信息系统分析其适宜产区,同时对 57 份种质资源的 15 个果实及果穗性状进行评价。最大信息熵模型预测结果显示,草果的地理分布范围 99.1~112.8 °E、20.5~30.4 °N,高度适生区面积为 48.14×104 km2;主要分布在云南、贵州、四川及广西西部;各气候因子中,六月份降水量、温度季节性变化标准差、降水量季节性变异系数、年平均温度、10 月份太阳辐射、最干月降水量对该物种的地理分布影响较大;资源调查发现云南是草果的主产区,产地包括滇东南、滇西北和滇西;产地间生境差异大,形成多种草果种植模式:⑴尼泊尔桤木林+草果、⑵杉木林+草果、⑶核桃林、漆树林或喜树林+草果,⑷混合原生林+草果;草果表型数据分析显示,其表型变异式样丰富,15 个性状变异系数均值为 27.34%,各性状中,挥发油得率的变异系数最大(53.54%),果宽变异系数最小(7.43%);相关性分析表明,果实、果穗等性状间相关性较强;基于性状的聚类分析显示,57 份资源可分为 7 类,其中Ⅰ类、Ⅲ类和Ⅴ类包含不同的产地;主成分分析显示,前 5 个主成分累计贡献率达 80.53%,可解释性状的大部分信息,综合性状特征筛选出 18 份种质资源,尤以怒江州贡山县的果实为佳。以上研究结果为揭示草果资源地理分布特征、合理规划种植区、筛选优质草果资源提供理论依据。
关键词:  草果  资源调查  地理分布  表型性状
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210126003
投稿时间:2021-01-26修订日期:2021-03-29
基金项目:2018 年云南省重大科技专项计划“滇红花、金铁锁等特色中药材种子种苗繁育关键技术研究及应用”(2018ZF010);2019 年云南省重大科 技专项计划“特色芳香生物资源产业化关键技术研究与应用”(2019ZG00903);2020 年云南省农业科学院科技创新及成果转化试点专项“农 业农村绿色发展创新中心建设”(202002AE320007-01)
Analysis on Geographical Distribution and Phenotypic Variation of Amomum tsaoko
XU Zhuo-hui, YANG Shao-bing, YANG Tian-mei, YANG Wei-ze, WANG Yuan-zhong, ZHANG Jin-yu
(Medicinal Plants Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
In order to develop and utilize Amomum tsaoko rationally, we investigated its resources in 16 of the production areas in Yunnan and Guangxi in 2019. Based on the species distribution information, combined with the maximum entropy model and GIS, the most suitable production areas were identified, and 15 fruits and spike traits of 57 accessions were evaluated. The results of maximum entropy model showed that the geographical distribution range of A. tsaoko was within 99.1-112.8 °E, 20.5-30.4 °N, with 48.14×104 km2 of optimal areas, mainly distributed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and western Guangxi. Among the climatic factors, precipitation in June, standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature, seasonal variation coefficient of precipitation, annual mean temperature, solar radiation in October, and precipitation in the driest month have greater effects on the geographical distribution of the species. In the resource survey it was found that Yunnan was the main production area of A. tsaoko, including southeast, northwest and west of the province; the habitat difference among the production areas was large, resulting in a variety of A. tsaoko planting patterns:⑴ Alnus nepalensis forest+Amomum tsaoko; (2) Cunninghamia lanceolata forest+Amomum tsaoko; (3) Juglans regia forest,Camptotheca acuminata forest, or Toxicodendron vernicifluum forest+ Amomum tsaoko; (4) The mixed primeval forest + Amomum tsaoko. The phenotypic data analysis showed that the phenotypic variation patterns were rich, and the average variation coefficient of the 15 traits was 27.34%. Among all those traits, the variation coefficient of volatile oil yield was the largest (53.54%), and the variation coefficient of fruit width was the smallest (7.43%). The correlation analysis showed that there was a strong correlation between the fruit and spike characters. According to clustering analysis, the 57 resources were divided into seven groups, among which groups Ⅰ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ class contained those from various origin. The principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the first five principal components was 80.53%, which could explain most of the information of the characters. Based on the comprehensive characteristics, 18 outstanding accessions were selected, with from Gongshan County of Nujian Prefecture having the best fruit . The above research results provide a theoretical basis for revealing the geographical distribution characteristics of A. tsaoko, rational planning of planting areas and screening high-quality resources.
Key words:  Amomum tsaoko  resource investigation  geographical distribution  phenotypic traits

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