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陕西农作物种质资源搜集保护与创新利用 研究进展
高飞1, 严勇敢1, 吉万全2, 刘五志1, 翟军海3, 李凤艳2, 高源1
0
(1.陕西省种子工作总站;2.西北农林科技大学;3.陕西省农业农村厅)
摘要:
陕西种质资源丰富,农耕文化历史悠久,经过两次全国种质资源普查及陕西区域性、重点种质资源普查,陕西已入国家库种质资源13828份,其中粮食作物11341份、经济作物1473份、蔬菜687份、果树191份、牧草绿肥等136份,全省累计保存和征集农作物种质资源约1.8万份。通过农作物种质资源研究利用,陕西在小麦、油菜、玉米、苹果、番茄等作物育种中取得了重大进展,在黑米、花椒、核桃、茶叶、猕猴桃等地方品种及野生资源直接应用于生产中,取得了显著的经济效益。但陕西资源保护利用体系有待完善,对不断流失的种质资源现状缺乏有效的资源保护和应对措施,在资源搜集、保护、利用及管理等各环节没能形成紧密的利益机制和管理机制,影响了资源价值的发挥。因此,新形势下筹划建立全省资源保护利用长效机制,对陕西珍稀、特有、独占性的资源开展保护工作,不断发掘利用新资源,服务于生产和育种研究,助力陕西农业追赶超越。
关键词:  陕西  农作物种质资源  保护利用  地方特色资源  现状与对策
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20210128001
投稿时间:2021-01-28修订日期:2021-02-26
基金项目:陕西省物种品种资源保护费项目(111821301354052199)
Research Progress on the Collection, Protection, Innovation and Application of Germplasm Resources in Shaanxi
GaoFei1, Yan Yonggan1, Ji Wanquan2, Liu Wuzhi1, Zhai Junhai3, Li Fengyan2, Gao Yuan1
(1.Shaanxi Seed Work Station, Xi’an;2.Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University;3.Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Shaanxi Procince, Xi’an)
Abstract:
Shaanxi province has a long history of agronomical cultivation culture and hosts abundant germplasm resources. Twice actions of China national-wide germplasm survey and several rounds of the regional resource investigation have unlocked ca. 18000 germplasm accessions including 13828 which are registered and persevered in National Crop Genebank of China including food crops (11341), economic crops (1473), vegetables (687), fruit (191) and forage crops (136). Through research and practices in agriculture germplasm, there have been significant progresses in breeding for crops like wheat, rapeseed, corn, apple, tomato, etc., along with noticeable economic benefits in exploiting values from the local characteristic and wild resources like black rice, pepper, walnut, tea and kiwi. However, problems on protection and utilization of germplasm resource in Shaanxi remain, such as inadequacy in the germplasm resources protection system, which fails to address the continued disappearance of some germplasms. In particular, the current system does not have appropriate incentive and management mechanisms to fully support the entire cycles of crop resources management, including search & collection, protection, utilization and management of the germplasm resources, which has hindered the realization of the full value of germplasm resources. We suggest to establish a long-term system valuable for the collection, characterization, protection, innovation and application of germplasm resources. Moreover, we suggest to explore the commercial value of precious or unique germplasm resources, thus serving the breeding for new varieties in Shaanxi.
Key words:  Shaanxi province  crops germplasm resources  development and protection  local characteristic resources  current?situation?and?strategy

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