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需冷量和需热量差异对桃花叶物候进程的影响
严娟1, 张明昊2, 蔡志翔1, 沈志军1, 马瑞娟1, 徐子媛1, 宿子文1, 俞明亮1
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(1.江苏省农业科学院果树研究所/江苏省高效园艺作物遗传改良重点实验室;2.上海市农业科学院林木果树研究所)
摘要:
为了明确桃开花展叶先后的花叶物候进程,花芽与叶芽需冷量和需热量差异对花叶物候进程的影响规律,本文首先评价了257份桃种质花芽叶芽的需冷量和需热量,并调查了盛花期和展叶期,将所试桃材料按花芽需冷量高低分为极低、低、中和高4种不同需冷量类型,系统讨论不同年度不同类型桃花叶物候进程,以及各进程的花芽与叶芽需冷量和需热量差异表现模式。结果发现,极低和低需冷量桃呈现出“先花后叶”、“花叶同放”和“先叶后花”3种花叶物候进程,同一种质的花叶物候进程会因年度不同而改变,其需冷量和需热量差异表现模式种类复杂且年度间有变动;中和高需冷量桃仅呈现出“先花后叶”1种花叶物候进程,其需冷量和需热量差异表现模式种类简单且年度间保持不变。桃花叶物候进程与需冷量和需热量差异模式相关,并主要取决于需热量的差异。表现为无论花芽需冷量是等于、小于还是大于叶芽,只要花芽需热量小于叶芽,则为“先花后叶”;二者需热量相等,则为“花叶同放”;花芽需热量大于叶芽,则为“先叶后花”。结果表明,花芽与叶芽的需热量差异是形成桃多样易变的花叶物候进程的重要因素。
关键词:    花芽  叶芽  需冷量  需热量  花叶物候进程
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr. 20210225001
投稿时间:2021-02-25修订日期:2021-05-11
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金资助(CARS-30);桃、草莓种质资源的收集、鉴定、编目、繁种与入库(圃)保存(19190156);国家园艺种质南京桃、草莓分库(NHGRC2020-NH16)
Effects of Chilling and Heat Requirement Differences Between Peach Floral Bud and Leaf Bud on Their Phenological Process
YAN Juan1, ZHANG Ming-hao2, CAI Zhi-xiang1, SHEN Zhi-jun1, MA Rui-juan1, XU Zi-yuan1, SU Zi-wen1, YU Ming-liang1
(1.Institute of Pomology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement;2.Forest and Fruit Tree Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
In order to clarify the phenological process of flowering and leaf expanding in peach, and the effects of chilling and heat requirement differences between floral and leaf buds on the phenological process, we first evaluated the chilling and heat requirements of floral and leaf buds of 257 peach germplasms, and investigated the full bloom date and leaf expanding date, then according to the chilling requirement of floral buds, the materials were classified into 4 types of very low, low, medium and high chilling requirement, respectively, and finally the phenological process of different types of peach in different years, as well as chilling and heat requirement differences of each phenological process, were systematically discussed. The results showed that peach with very low chilling and low chilling requirements had 3 kinds of phenological process, including “flowering before leaf expanding”, “simultaneous flowering and leaf expanding” and “leaf expanding before flowering”. The phenological process of the same germplasm varied in different years, and the patterns of chilling and heat requirement differences were complex and varied accordingly. Peach with medium chilling and high chilling requirements had only 1 kind of phenological process, which was “flowering before leaf expanding”, and the patterns of chilling and heat requirement differences were simple and unvaried. The phenological process of peach floral and leaf were related to patterns of chilling and heat requirement differences, and mainly depended on the difference of heat requirement. Regardless of the chilling requirement of the floral bud, when the heat requirement of floral bud was less than that of leaf bud, the phenological process was “flowering before leaf expanding”; when the heat requirement of floral and leaf buds was equal, the phenological process was “simultaneous flowering and leaf expanding”; when the heat requirement of floral bud was greater than that of leaf bud, the phenological process was “leaf expanding before flowering”. The results indicated that the heat requirement difference of the floral bud and leaf bud was chiefly responsible for the different and variable phenological process of peach.
Key words:  peach  floral bud  leaf bud  chilling requirement (CR)  heat requirement (HR)  phenological process of flower and leaf

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