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新疆落叶果树种质资源评价挖掘与创新利用研究进展
陈学森, 毛志泉, 王 楠, 张宗营, 尹承苗
0
(山东农业大学园艺科学与工程学院/作物生物学国家重点实验室)
摘要:
进一步加强种质资源的评价挖掘与创新利用,对打赢中国种业翻身仗具有重要意义。新疆是落叶果树的起源演化中心和品质育种的基因库,近几年来,在新疆野苹果及‘库尔勒香’梨等新疆落叶果树种质资源评价挖掘与创新利用方面取得了诸多重要进展,主要结果如下,(1)以新疆野苹果为建群种的伊犁野果林是第三纪古温带阔叶林的残遗群落,历史悠久,资源丰富;(2)新疆野苹果是世界栽培苹果的祖先种,其资源的评价挖掘和创新利用取得了“理论、技术、品种、产品”的系统创新成果;(3)东、西方梨杂种起源的新疆‘库尔勒香梨’,优质、耐贮的特性遗传能力很强,是梨品质育种不可或缺的重要亲本资源;(4)伊犁野杏遗传多样性最丰富,而南疆栽培杏是相对独立的孟德尔群体,通过优系选育与推广应用,打破了库车、喀什、和田三个南疆杏自然群体的封闭状态,为300余万亩的南疆杏良种化提供了支撑;(5)新疆野樱桃李是李属的重要资源,通过迁地种植,实现了新疆野生樱桃李资源的品种化。
关键词:  伊犁野果林  新疆落叶果树  评价挖掘与创新利用
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr. 20210303002
投稿时间:2021-03-03修订日期:2021-04-26
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(31730080);山东省泰山学者攀登计划项目(tspd20161005)
Progress on Evaluation, Mining and Utilization of Germplasm Resource of Deciduous Fruit Trees in Xinjiang
CHEN Xue-sen, MAO Zhi-quan, WANG Nan, ZHANG Zong-ying, YIN Cheng-miao
(College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology,Tai′an 271018)
Abstract:
It is of great significance to strengthen the evaluation, excavation and utilization of germplasm resources to win the battle of turning over the seed industry. Xinjiang is the origin and diversity center of deciduous fruit trees and the gene bank for quality breeding. In recent years, important progresses have been made in the evaluation, mining and innovative utilization of germplasm resources of wild fruit forests and deciduous fruit trees in Xinjiang, such as Malus sieversii (wild apple) and ‘korle’ pear. The significant achievements are listed as follows: (1) The wild apple forest in Yili is a relic community of the tertiary paleotemperate broad-leaved forest with a long history and abundant resources; (2) Xinjiang wild apple is the ancestor of the cultivated apple, and its evaluation and utilization (including theory, technology, variety and product) have been achieved; (3)The Xinjiang ‘korle’ pear, which originated from the hybrids of Eastern and Western pears, has strong heritability of high quality and storability, and is an indispensable parent resource for pear quality breeding; (4) Yili wild apricots and southern Xinjiang cultivated apricots have played an important role in domestication of cultivated apricots. The hybridization and breeding of superior lines broke down the genetic isolation among the three natural apricot groups in Kuqa, Kashgar and Hotan, providing elite varieties valuable for the apricot cultivation (>3 million mu) in southern Xinjiang; (5) Xinjiang Wild Cherry Plum is one of most important species in genus Prunus. The ex-situ planting of wild cherry plum resources resulted in breeding for the plum varieties.
Key words:  Yili wild fruit forest  deciduous fruit trees in Xinjiang  evaluation, mining and innovative utilization

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