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芸薹属种间和属间杂种和异源多倍体的表型显性及遗传机制
邵玉娇1, 曾攀2, 李再云2
0
(1.湖北第二师范学院生命与化学学院;2.作物遗传改良国家重点实验室/华中农业大学植物科学技术学院)
摘要:
种间杂种和异源多倍体有时只表现其中一个亲本的一些形态、生理与分子等层次的性状或特性,即祖先基因组在性状控制方面的不对称性(genome asymmetry)或显性(genome dominance)现象。三个芸薹属异源四倍体中除发生B>A>C的rRNA基因表达的显性及等级外,基因组不对称性在形态性状的表现上也较明显,甘蓝的表现最强、对黑芥和白菜型油菜的为显性,黑芥对白菜型油菜为显性,呈现C>B>A的显性等级关系。在芸薹属栽培种与萝卜、诸葛菜、菘蓝等的属间杂种及异源多倍体中,萝卜及诸葛菜的表型为显性,其中基部叶片的缺刻特性最易表现出来,这些显性性状主要由一条或几条染色体所决定。表型显性的发生可能与供体基因组及基因本身的性质及结构、基因组间的互作有关,调控的分子机制有待研究。
关键词:  芸薹属  异源多倍体  表现显性  基因组显性  核仁显性
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr. 20210331002
投稿时间:2021-03-31修订日期:2021-05-17
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31771827)
Phenotypic Dominance and Genetic Mechanisms in Interspecific / Intergeneric Hybrids and Allopolyploids of Brassica
SHAO Yu-jiao1, ZENG Pan2, LI Zai-yun2
(1.College of Chemistry and Life Science, Hubei University of Education;2.National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement / College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University)
Abstract:
Some interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids show morphological, physiological and molecular traits biased to one progenitor, which is referred to as genome asymmetry or genome dominance, in spite of the inclusion of the genomes of the two or more progenitors in the same nucleus. Besides the occurrence of the expression dominance of the rRNA genes with the B>A>C hierarchy in three cultivated Brassica allotetraploids, the genome asymmetry for their phenotypic features is also obvious, for some traits of Brassica oleracea are strongly expressed and are dominant over those of B. nigra and B. rapa, while those of B. nigra are dominant over those of B. rapa, with the C>B>A hierarchy. As to the phenotypic performance in the intergeneric hybrids and allopolyploids of Brassica species with several relatives including Raphanus sativus, Orychophragmus violaceus and Isatis indigotica, Raphanus sativus and Orychophragmus violaceus are dominant, particularly with their basal serrated leaves being persistently expressed. Notably, these dominant traits are controlled by one or several chromosomes. The phenotypic dominance is possibly related to the structure and nature of the parental genome and gene(s) involved and the interaction between divergent genomes, but the regulation mechanisms remain largely to be elucidated.
Key words:  Brassica  allopolyploids  phenotypic dominance  genome dominance  nucleolar dominance

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