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伊犁天山160份野苹果种质资源表型性状的遗传多样性分析
张学超1, 任海龙2, 唐式敏1, 朱 玲1, 张胜军1, 冉昪1
0
(1伊犁哈萨克自治州农业科学研究所,新疆伊宁 835000;2广州市农业科学研究院生物与遗传育种重点实验室,广州 510308)
摘要:
本研究对伊犁天山地区160份新疆野苹果种质资源,14个表型性状进行了评价鉴定,并筛选了特异种质。结果表明,14个表型性状的变异系数在5.75%~38.44%,平均为21.78%,果实硬度的变异系数最大,果形指数的变异系数最小;Shannon-Weiner多样性指数分布在1.95~2.06,平均为2.01,多数性状具有丰富的遗传多样性;160份野苹果种质资源的隶属函数均值分布在0.202~0.681之间,平均为0.514,其中20份资源的隶属函数值大于0.6,在单果重、果实硬度、果实纵横径等方面有明显优势;相关性分析表明,单果重与果实纵径、横径、果梗粗、果实硬度呈显著正相关,与可溶性固形物含量和果梗长呈显著负相关;主成分分析结果表明,5个主成分因子的累计贡献率达79.258%,其中第1主成分与果实性状有关,第2主成分与叶片性状有关,第3主成分与枝条性状有关,第4主成分与果实性状和枝条性状有关,第5主成分与果梗性状有关;依据14个表型性状可将160份种质资源分为个6类群,其中第Ⅱ类群的单果重最大,第Ⅲ类群的果实硬度最大,第Ⅴ类群的可溶性固形物含量最大。本研究结果可为新疆野苹果种质资源的保护和利用提供重要参考。
关键词:  野苹果  种质资源  表型性状  遗传多样性
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr. 20210415002
投稿时间:2021-04-15修订日期:2021-05-07
基金项目:农作物种质资源保护与利用专项(19200380)
Genetic Diversity Analysis of Phenotypic Traits in 160 Germplasm Resources of Malus sieversii from Tianshan in Ili
ZHANG Xue-chao1, REN Hai-long2, TANG Shi-min1, ZHU Ling1, ZHANG Sheng-jun1, RAN Bian1
(1Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Yining 835000; 2Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Breeding, Guangzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510308)
Abstract:
In this study, 14 phenotypic traits of 160 wild apple (Malus sieversii) germplasm resources in Tianshan area of Ili were evaluated, from which elite germplasms were screened. The results showed that the variation coefficients of the 14 phenotypic traits ranged from 5.75% to 38.44%, with an average of 21.78%, the variation coefficient of fruit hardness was the highest, and the fruit shape index was the lowest. The Shannon-Weiner diversity index ranged from 1.95 to 2.06, with an average of 2.01, and most of the traits were rich in genetic diversity. The membership function of the 160 germplasm resources ranged from 0.202 to 0.681, with a mean value of 0.514, among which 20 resources had the value greater than 0.6, with obvious advantages in fruit weight, fruit hardness and fruit size. Correlation analysis showed that the fruit weight was significantly positively correlated with fruit length, fruit diameter, stalk diameter and fruit hardness, and significantly negatively correlated with soluble solids content and stalk length. The results of principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of 5 principal component factors was 79.258%, among which the first principal component was related to fruit traits, the second principal component was related to leaf traits, the third principal component was related to branch traits, the fourth principal component was related to fruit traits and branch traits, and the fifth principal component was related to fruit stalk traits. Based on the 14 phenotypic traits, the 160 germplasm resources were divided into 6 groups, among which group II had the highest fruit weight, group III had the highest fruit hardness, and group V had the highest soluble solids content. The results of this study would provide important references for conservation and utilization of the wild apple germplasm resources.
Key words:  Malus sieversii  germplasm resources  phenotypic traits  genetic diversity

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